Push, Tap, Dwell, and Pinch: Evaluation of Four Mid-air Selection Methods Augmented with Ultrasonic Haptic Feedback
This work compares four mid-air target selection methods (Push, Tap, Dwell, Pinch) with two types of ultrasonic haptic feedback (Select, Hover & Select) in a Fitts' law experiment. Results revealed that Tap is the fastest, the most accurate, and one of the least physically and cognitively demanding selection methods. Pinch is relatively fast but error prone and physically and cognitively demanding. Dwell is slowest by design, yet the most accurate and the least physically and cognitively demanding. Both haptic feedback methods improve selection performance by increasing users' spatial awareness. Particularly, Push augmented with Hover & Select feedback is comparable to Tap. Besides, participants perceive the selection methods as faster, more accurate, and more physically and cognitively comfortable with the haptic feedback methods.